Festivals/Seasons & Holy Days

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A brief history of CSF – 1905 – 2012

1905 – The Founding

The Community of Saint Francis was founded in 1905 in London by Sister Rosina (Rosina Rice), who, for twenty one years, had been a sister in the Anglican community of the Sisters of Bethany. Sr Rosina was working in the parish of Holy Redeemer, Clerkenwell, a slum area of London at that time. The young curate of this parish, Fr John Hawes, like Sr Rosina, was greatly inspired by the life of St. Francis of Assisi and thus it was with his encouragement that she decided to withdraw from the Sisters of Bethany to found a Franciscan community. Together they drew up the first Rule of the Community of Saint Francis, using as its basis the Rule of Saint Clare (1253) (excluding the enclosure parts) as well as including some sections of the Rule of Saint Francis (1221 and 1223), word for word.

Sr. Rosina was joined by at least one other sister of her former Community. Initially they lived with the Sisters of the Holy Comforter in north London (now the Benedictine sisters of West Malling Abbey).

1906 – Hull

Then, in 1906, the Community was invited to work in the parish of St Mary’s, Sculcoates, Hull, a poor dockside parish, where a small house was rented which they named St Damian’s Convent. The sisters adopted a brown habit with the Franciscan knotted cord, a black veil and sandals. Mother Rosina Mary and her small group of sisters soon won the hearts of the dock workers, seamen and their families. Fr. Hawes, encouraged by their promising beginnings, hoped to found a similar Franciscan community for men. Towards the end of 1906 he was clothed as a novice, taking the name Jerome, with the Benedictines of Caldey Island, but he left after a disagreement with the Abbot over the architectural work he was doing for the abbey. Eventually he was professed in 1908, with the blessing of Dr Charles Gore, Bishop of Birmingham, by Fr James Adderley, who invited him to become one of his curates with the charge of the newly opened mission church of St Francis of Assisi in his parish of Saltley, Birmingham. He had hoped to found a Franciscan community there but within a year he was alone and uncertain of his future as an Anglican, when he responded to the appeal from the Bishop of the Bahamas for his priestly and architectural help after a devastating hurricane.

1908 – The move to Dalston

Meanwhile the Community of St Francis was adding to its numbers, and by the summer of 1908 the sisters had moved from Hull to the parish of St Philip’s, Dalston, a densely populated area of north east London. Dr Cosmo Gordon Lang, Bishop of Stepney, became their Visitor, approved the Rule and professed the first novices. The Vicar of St Philip’s, Fr Charles Thornely, became chaplain to the sisters. In addition to working in the parish, laundry work was taken in to help with meeting expenses. The Daily Office was prayed from Day Office of the Church in the oratory of the convent and the sisters attended the daily Eucharist in the parish church. Within a year it was necessary to move to a larger house in Richmond Road to accommodate the increased number of sisters. The Community remained there for fifty-three years.

Going over to Rome

It was about this time that Mother Rosina Mary and some of the sisters were beginning to have doubts about their position in the Church of England. Finally, news reached Dalston about the small American Episcopal community, the Society of the Atonement, Graymoor, New York, having been corporately received into the Roman Catholic Church in October 1909. Mother Rosina Mary and five other sisters felt that this was the step they should take also. They left Dalston and went to Graymoor and nearly all were received into the Roman Catholic Church on November 26th, 1910. Only one sister made her profession for life in the Society of the Atonement. Mother Rosina Mary and another were professed together in the congregation of the Franciscan Missionaries of the Sacred Heart, Peekskill, New York, taking the names of Sr Mary Magdalene and Sr Mary Claudia respectively. Both remained there for the rest of their lives. Mary Magdalene ministering in the school and Convent until her death in 1946.

The others left Graymoor and presumably returned to England. Not long after this, Fr Jerome (as Fr John Hawes became known) was received into the Roman Catholic Church at Graymoor. He went to Rome where he studied for the priesthood and while there was professed as a Franciscan Tertiary in 1913. After his ordination in 1915, he served as a parish priest in Western Australia until 1939. Then he returned to the Bahamas, built a hermitage on Cat Island and lived the life of a hermit there until his death in 1956.

1910 – The Faithful remnant

Three sisters remained at Dalston. Sr Helen Elizabeth, who had made her life profession on January 6th 1909, was appointed Mother by the Chaplain. She wrote many years later:

“The Rev Prebendary Thornely and Bishop Paget came to our assistance and fathered us in every sense of the word. We are overwhelmed when we reflect on their goodness to us at that time! Many ups and downs could be recorded during these years …. The present Community almost owes its existence to them … With Fr Thornely’s patience and spiritual help, we waited to know God’s will for the Community. Many industries that had been started for our support, on the taking of the larger house, made the work heavy running for a time! But there has never been any lapse or break in the recitation of the Divine Office.”

Others joined the small group and by 1919 four of these were to form the backbone of the Community over the next thirty years: Mary Grace, Lilian Agnes, Mary Francis and Agnes Mary.

The Home

In 1920, the Community was given the house next door. It was decided to use it as a Nursing Home for incurable and bedridden women and although there was no money to furnish it, equipment was obtained free from an old military hospital, and so St Francis’ Home came into being. A trained nurse was paid a small wage to help care for the patients and the sisters took turns on night duty.

The Third Order

From the beginning, the Community made provision for those women and men who wished to live according to a Franciscan Rule of Life as Tertiaries. Two women Tertiaries lived with the Community for many years. In 1923 Fr George Ford, a priest Tertiary, was appointed Chaplain to the Community.


The Dalston Chapel

It had been Mother Helen Elizabeth’s great dream to build a separate chapel with cloister and garden. This became a reality when, after much planning and hard work, with the generosity of many friends, on May 31st 1924, the Chapel was dedicated by Bishop Henry Mosley. The sisters still attended the parish church, which was only a ten minute walk from the convent.

On festive occasions the eucharist was celebrated in the convent chapel. The Chaplain and the priests of St Philip’s regularly celebrated the eucharist for the patients in the Home.

The Royalty

By 1926, in addition to the work already undertaken, a ministry to the “down and outs” – the Royalty as they were affectionately called – had begun. Food, clothing and occasionally work were offered to those men who came to the side entrance, which was turned into a miniguesthouse, where they could rest a while before continuing on. Thousands were fed and clothed at the convent during the years of the Depression.

Few Vocations

These were hard years for the sisters too. Several women tested their vocation to the Community but only a couple stayed. The postulancy was a minimum of three months’ duration, the noviciate two years, after which a sister made her life profession. The Community was familiar with the work of Br Douglas and the Brotherhood of St Francis at Flowers Farm in Dorset. They also knew about Fr Jack Winslow and Fr Algy and the Christa Seva Sangha in India, and later The Brotherhood of the Love of Christ in St Ives, Huntingdonshire. The sisters rejoiced with them in the amalgamation of the two groups which formed the Society of St Francis in 1937.

1939 – The War Years

St Francis Convent was damaged by the bombing and no sooner had the sisters moved into the Home than it was hit and both buildings were badly damaged but no one was hurt.

Temporary accommodation was found for the patients and sisters locally. Later, Mother Helen Elizabeth and three sisters moved into the lower floor of the convent which had been made habitable, and three sisters and six patients went to the Rectory, Singleton, Sussex, where the Rector, Fr Thomas Huxley, had offered to house them for the duration of the war.

Meanwhile there was much to be done in planning for the repairs to the convent and Home.

The parish church had been wrecked and was not going to be rebuilt but the convent chapel was only slightly damaged by the blasts so the eucharist was celebrated regularly there from that time onwards. In 1942 Fr Algy SSF was appointed Chaplain and thus began an association with the Society of St Francis which has continued and grown over the years. The sisters and patients at Singleton returned to Dalston in 1945.

1950 – the death of Mother Helen Elizabeth

On March 7th 1950 Mother Helen Elizabeth died after a short illness. She had re-founded the Community after the exodus in 1910. One of the first patients in the Home wrote of her:

“After the Home had been rebuilt and with the aid of her devoted group of sisters – indeed a faithful few – the true Franciscan spirit and courage of the Reverend Mother seemed to shine at its highest and the renewed effort to knit up the broken threads and carry forward the good work over again … Her sublime faith in all she undertook that all would go well; her words of comfort to us on special occasions; her keen sense of humour over the funny little everyday happenings in the Home and elsewhere; her love of music and beautiful voice, both speaking and singing – all these and many other memories will be the echoes in our daily lives.”

1950s – The beginnings of growth

Sr Agnes Mary was elected Mother and took office from March 20th 1950. Within seven years five more women joined the Community who eventually stayed to make their life profession. A new Constitution was adopted in which provision was made for a Warden who was to be a friar of the Society of St Francis. A three year period of simple profession before life profession was introduced. The work of the sisters continued along the lines of pre-war days, though the number of Royalty dwindled to a mere few. Some sisters were working in the parish of St Mary’s Hackney Wick. By this time SSF brothers were also working in the area with a house at Plaistow. Priest brothers regularly celebrated the eucharist in the convent chapel and the sisters were invited to help them as members of parish mission teams.

In 1957, a wing of the clergy house of St Mary’s Hackney Wick was available for the use of the Community, where three sisters lived and worked in the parish for a time. Sr Mary Francis remained living and working in the parish until 1977.

1962 – the move to Compton Durville, Somerset

By 1958, it was known that the London County Council had scheduled the demolition of many houses in the Dalston area including the convent and Home, and so the search for an alternative location was begun. After much searching and prayer and with the help of Fr Charles SSF, the Old Manor House at Compton Durville, Somerset became the new home of the sisters and patients in August 1962. This quiet rural hamlet was quite a contrast to noisy crowded Dalston. There was a small chapel in the manor house, and the clergy from local villages were most willing to make possible a daily eucharist. On Sundays a priest brother travelled from Hilfield, Dorset, only twenty miles away, to celebrate the eucharist for the sisters.

The new Home and Chapel

It was obvious that the manor house by itself could not adequately function as a convent as well as the Home for very long. With the help of friends, enough money was raised to build a new Home and larger chapel and more accommodation for sisters on the site of the derelict stables. The foundation stone was laid in April 1963 and in April 1964 the new Home and Chapel were dedicated by Dr Edward Henderson, Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Community’s Visitor. St Francis’ Home provided room sixteen patients in a spacious well-lit ward as well as a day room. In the summer there was the possibility of the patients sitting out in the garden.

In 1967 the old Barn was converted into a guest house with six bedrooms and a common room. One of the manor cottages was also available for use by the Community. This meant that more people could share in the life of the Community for retreats, holidays and conferences.

During the 1970s the nursing work at Compton Durville gradually came to an end as government regulations became more demanding and fewer nurses joined the community.

From 1975 the ward was divided into two and one half used as a meeting room for groups. In 1982 the last three patients moved into smaller rooms, and the remaining ward also became available to groups. Later it became the refectory for sisters and guests. More guest accommodation was created out of what had been sisters’ rooms in the early 90s, enabling the work of hospitality to be expanded.

1964 – Affiliation with the Society of St Francis

In 1964 the Community became affiliated with the Society of St Francis, retaining its autonomy with its own Chapter, Constitution and Rule. This was the period of much renewal within religious communities in the wake of Vatican II. Mother Agnes Mary wisely moved the Community slowly through some major changes. From this period onwards, the life of the Community has been enriched by the opportunities for working in collaboration with the brothers in a variety of ways, including joint novice formation, mission teams, and representation on each other’s Chapters.

With the brothers’ help, it was decided to review the Rule, unchanged since the foundation.

After much discussion the Chapter decided to adopt The Principles of the Society of St Francis, and an interim Constitution was drawn up. At about the same time there was a change in Office Book to the Monastic Diurnal for the lesser hours of Terce, Sext, None and Compline, and the Book of Common Prayer was used for Morning and Evening Prayer, replacing Lauds and Vespers. In 1972 SSF produced the first edition of its own Office Book (later editions were titled The Daily Office – SSF) providing for a four-fold office: Morning Prayer, Midday Prayer, Evening Prayer and Night Prayer, and the sisters decided to use this office book.

From the time of the affiliation it was agreed that the Community would no longer have a separate Third Order from the Society of St Francis. In 1973 the First Order Brothers’ Chapter recognised the Community of St Francis as the Sisters of the First Order, SSF; and the first Joint First Order Chapter of CSF and SSF took place at Burlingame near San Francisco in 1984.

1971 – the election of Sr Elizabeth as Mother

Sr Mary Francis was the first sister to celebrate her profession jubilee in 1970 and the following year Mother Agnes Mary celebrated hers. Much had been accomplished under her loving care and guidance during her time in office and the Community now numbered fifteen in life profession. Due to ill health she felt it right not to stand for re-election as Mother and Sr Elizabeth was elected and took office from October 5th 1971.

Ventures abroad

The community had continued to grow slowly but steadily since the early 1950s, and by 1966 numbered 19 – 12 in profession and 7 novices. Apart from the work at Hackney Wick, the community had always been only one house, but now it was time to expand outwards.

In 1967 two sisters went to the Fiwila Mission, Zambia, Africa, at the invitation of the SSF brothers to help the staff of the Mission Hospital and Leprosarium and this work continued until 1974, involving five further sisters at various points.

American Province

After consultation with the SSF Ministers, the Community accepted an invitation to go to the American Province and Sr Cecilia was appointed by the Chapter to lead the venture. Thus the first CSF house outside the European Province was set up in San Francisco in 1974 and the American Province of CSF created, with Sr Cecilia elected its first Sister Provincial. As numbers grew, there was briefly a house at Brentwood, California, with a ministry to Hispanic farm workers; it closed when a house was founded in Bethlehem, Pennyslvania in 1989. By 1992 only six sisters remained between the two houses, and so the Bethlehem house closed and the sisters returned to San Francisco.

One ministry which continues to the present day was also founded in the 1980s. Many people in San Francisco were dying from AIDS; when families and friends came to visit they had nowhere to stay. The sisters’ small guest apartment couldn’t meet the need, so in 1986 Family Link came into being. Sr Ruth founded this ministry with the aid of friends, and is the resident manager; over the years the focus of the work has widened to relatives visiting a family member with any life threatening disease.

The various American houses have had a wide range of ministries, mainly for the sick, poor, homeless and immigrants, through such work as hospital chaplaincy, massage therapy, home health care, soup kitchen and food pantry work. Sisters have been active in various parishes and at the diocesan level by serving on commissions and training deacons. They also offer retreats and spiritual direction and have a small hospitality ministry.

Family Link was the first experiment with sisters living elsewhere than the community house for the sake of ministry; Lynne is presently serving as an Associate Priest in Burlingame, just south of San Francisco.

New Zealand

After Africa and America, in the 1980s it was the turn of the Pacific. In 1986 a group of five sisters (one New Zealander, two Australians, and two English, led by Sr Teresa) started a house in Auckland, New Zealand. Several women from New Zealand came over the years to test their vocation, but none stayed, and at the end of 1998 the house was closed and the remaining two sisters returned to England.

Malaysia and Korea

Much more recently a woman from Malaysia joined CSF, and spent two periods of two years each working in her home diocese of Kuching, before deciding not to continue her membership at the end of her period in first profession.

The European Province now includes a Region in South Korea – this story is told below.

Working with the brothers

The growing collaboration with the brothers took practical shape in the form of sisters living for various periods of time in brothers’ houses, including Canterbury, Cambridge, Alnmouth and Ashton-under-Lyne, and in America at Little Portion Friary, Long Island. At other times brothers have spent time living in sisters’ houses.

In other places more long term arrangements were made to share life and ministry. In 1967, the same year as the sisters went to Fiwila, two also went to Plaistow in east London, to share in the work of the brothers’ house there. They lived separately, but shared in the chapel life and meals. Part-time paid work was undertaken, and work in local parishes. In the 1980s and 1990s two sisters lived in the house itself, until this venture ended in the mid 1990s.

A similar “alongside” arrangement prevailed in Belfast for eight years, from 1983 to 1991, where two sisters, or occasionally three lived near the brothers’ house in Deerpark Road, very close to the peace line in this divided city.

From the early seventies until the closure in 1991 of St Francis School for Boys, Hooke, Dorset, sisters were on the staff for varying periods of time.

When the brothers established a house in Llandudno, North Wales, in 1973, one sister became part of the household. The number of sisters was increased to two who remained until that house was closed in 1984.

This experiment in a mixed house of brothers and sisters was repeated from 1979 at Toynbee Hall in east London; the group there moving to Halcrow Street, Stepney in 1982, which continued as a joint house of two sisters and two brothers until the Number One Trust, the owners, decided to sell it. The remaining group of three, two sisters and a brother, moved further east in the autumn of 2008 and now form part of the cluster of houses in the Parish of the Divine Compassion, Plaistow.

In America there was a joint ‘Provincialate House’ in San Francisco for a time, which included the Ministers Provincial of CSF and SSF, two other brothers and sisters, and Sr Mary Catherine of the Poor Clares of Reparation.

New European Province houses and ministries

As numbers continued to grow it became possible to experiment with new expressions of the life. In the early 1970s one sister was spending half of each week in a parish in Bridgwater, returning to Compton Durville for the rest of the week; another spent some time as a chaplain at Wormwood Scrubs prison, and two others lived for a time in parishes away from community houses.

Quite unexpectedly in 1973, the Community was offered the use of a house in Newcastle under- Lyme, Staffordshire. Two sisters went there in 1974, and the house was a focus of hospitality and service in the area until it closed in 2001.

From 1971, a sister had been working at Wellclose House, Balsall Heath, Birmingham, a hostel for young women at risk. Other sisters collaborated in this work until CSF withdrew in 1989, moving in 1990 to another house in the city, which continued until 1996. Within a year the sisters were back in Birmingham, thanks to the generosity of the brothers, who gave their house in Gillott Road, to be adapted to make it suitable for elderly and less physically able sisters. These moved from Compton Durville and from Hythe, where two and then three sisters had been living with the last members of the Community of the Presentation for about ten years.

Other residential care work was undertaken in Dover from 1976 into the 80s, when the sisters took over a hostel for women and children which had been started by two friends of the Society.

In 1983 an offer of a house from the parish of St John’s Hyde Park Crescent was accepted and a group of sisters moved to this part of Paddington. They engaged in a range of work, paid and voluntary. When in 1989 the agreement with the parish was terminated, they moved to Brixton in south London and continued with the same mixture of activity, locally and further afield. This house was also owned by the Number One Trust who wanted to sell it along with Halcrow Street; the members of the Brixton house moved early in 2009 to a house owned by the Diocese of Southwark, just a few miles from Brixton. There they live as a household of five, three sisters and two others, exploring a new form of community life, offering hospitality, and engaging in various ministries, such as prison chaplaincy and spiritual direction.

There were also sisters feeling called to the solitary life; one began to live it in a converted cricket pavilion at Compton Durville in 1982, another in Wales in 1991, and a third in another part of Wales in 1996. The two in Wales have recently moved to share one house, while maintaining a high degree of solitary and separate life; and another sister is exploring the vocation, living the Clares at Freeland.

In 2000 the Sisters’ Meeting (see below) affirmed a desire among the sisters of the European Province to have a house in a materially poor area. Moyra spent some time living with brothers in two such areas in Scotland as preparation for this house. In 2006 a suitable house was offered in Leicester, and two sisters moved there in 2007. The house is on an inner city estate populated largely by Somalis, and close to a predominantly Hindu area of the city.

Leicester itself is likely to become the first British city to have a majority of non White British residents.

New ways of governance

With the foundation of the American Province there was a need to revise the Constitution. A new one was drawn up based on that of the Brothers of the First Order. An interim stage existed for a while with the terminology of office holders being Sister Provincial for those elected for each Province, and Mother for the sister elected as leader for the whole Community. Later still this was changed to be in line with the terminology used by the brothers: Minister General replaced Mother; Minister Provincial replaced Sister Provincial.

At the First Order Chapter in America in 1984 the question was raised of equality between the Minister General SSF and the Minister General CSF. Until then the brothers’ Minister General was considered the overall head of the entire SSF family. The current structure, with the Ministers General of SSF, CSF, and TSSF working together to maintain the unity of the family evolved over the next few years.

As numbers in the European Province grew, an elected chapter replaced the chapter of all life professed sisters. At the 1988 General Chapter of the European Province the sisters met separately as a group for a little of the time. This was a valuable forum for discussion, and led to an agreement to have an annual Sisters’ Meeting. This is not decision making, but has at times discussed important issues in the life of the province and given guidance to the Chapter on decisions to be made. Initially only the professed were included, but now novices also attend.


Catherine Joy was the first CSF sister to be ordained priest, in San Francisco in 1985. When it became possible for women to be ordained in the UK, two existing sisters, Elizabeth and Hilary, were ordained deacon in 1988 and 1989 respectively, and became priests in 1994.

Since then two women priests have joined the community and made their life profession.

The present situation (2012) is that there are these four, plus another ordained in 2011 as deacon, one who will begin to train in 2012, and an ordained woman testing her vocation in the European Province; and one priest, Lynne, in the Province of the Americas. Leadership and ordination do not necessarily go together, and it is not necessary to be a priest to hold any office in CSF.

European Province in 1990s

Houses and ministries during this decade have already been mentioned above; in addition Nan was elected as Minister Provincial in 1991, bringing to an end many years of service in that role by Elizabeth. In the same year a new style of habit was agreed, designed to be worn without the veil, which had been made optional in 1987.

A Provincial Review was carried out in 1994, with a number of external friends visiting each house and making recommendations for the future. This led to the production in 1995 of a Provincial Vision Statement.

In 1996 Joyce was elected as Minister Provincial, and served until elected as Minister General in 2002.

For many years CSF had produced its own magazine, Troubadour; in November 1990 the final edition was printed, and Troubadour merged with Franciscan to become a joint First Order magazine for the Province.

European Province from 2000 onwards

Helen Julian became Minister Provincial in 2002, and served until 2012. In the early years of the new millennium a lot of energy went into planning for CSFs centenary celebrations, in 2005. The main event was a special Sisters’ Meeting, held in London in February, to coincide with the traditional date of founding. The sisters from America, along with the two members of the Korean Franciscan Sisterhood, then in covenant with us, came to join the meeting. The centrepiece was a thanksgiving eucharist in Southwark Cathedral, to which many brothers, ex members of CSF, tertiaries, families and friends came. There was also a pilgrimage to places associated with CSFs early history, and the premiere of the play ‘Clarevision’ written especially for the centenary by Michael Wicherek.

In 2008 the Province began a period of reflection and review of their life, especially through the Sisters’ Meeting 2009, which focussed on our gifts and skills, our existing houses, and our hopes and dreams for the future. As a result of this process a Working Group of five sisters was mandated to explore alternatives to the house at Compton Durville, which it was recognized had become too large for us to manage. The Candlemas Chapter 2010 agreed to purchase a redundant vicarage in the village of Metheringham, Lincolnshire; and to close the house at Compton Durville. The house closed for ministry in May of that year, and the final sisters left in October. The handover to the Number One Trust was finally concluded in April 2011. A large number of sisters moved in the course of 2010; only one house was left unchanged by the end of the year.


In 1997 two existing members of a community in Korea felt called to live a more Franciscan life, and so left to found the Korean Franciscan Sisterhood. They contacted CSF for support and advice, and in 2002 the two communities agreed a covenant, with Pamela Clare as first Mentor Sister to the new community. They made their first profession in 2001 and came to the UK to participate in CSF’s centenary celebrations in 2005. The same year Beverley  took over as Mentor Sister. In 2008 Frances and Jemma applied to the First Order Sisters’ Chapter to become members of CSF; Chapter accepted their request and they were attached to the European Province. The following year they applied to make their life profession, and this took place in Gumi, South Korea on September 8th, 2009. Four sisters – Joyce (Minister General), Helen Julian (Minister Provincial) and the two mentors, Pamela Clare and Beverley – travelled to Korea for this special occasion.


Minister General (including the title ‘Mother’)

Elizabeth 1974 – 1988

Cecilia 1988 – 1996

Teresa 1996 – 2002

Joyce 2002 – 2012

Helen Julian 2012 –

Minister Provincial (including the title ‘Mother’ and ‘Sister Provincial’)

European Province:

Rosina Mary 1905 – 1910 (leaving CSF for USA)

Helen Elizabeth 1910 – 1950 (died in office)

Agnes Mary 1950 – 1971 (died in 1983)

Elizabeth 1971 – 1991

Nan 1991 – 1996

Joyce 1996 – 2002

Helen Julian 2002 – 2012

Sue 2012 –

American Province:

Cecilia 1974 – 1988

Catherine Joy 1988 – 1994

Pamela Clare 1994 – 2004

Jean 2004 – 2010

Pamela Clare 2010 –

HOUSES OF CSF (current houses in bold)

European Province

Sculcoates, Hull; Dalston, London; Hackney Wick, London; Compton Durville, Somerset;

Birmingham (Moseley, Birchfield, Edgbaston); Newcastle under Lyme, Staffordshire;

Dover, Kent; Belfast, Northern Ireland; Auckland, New Zealand; London (Stepney,

Paddington, Brixton, Plaistow, Southwark); Leicester; Gumi, South Korea;

Metheringham, Lincolnshire

Province of the Americas

San Francisco, California; Brentwood, California; Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Written April 2012